A Time for Everything

Rebecca Van Noord

Genesis 12–13, Matthew 10, Ecclesiastes 3:1–8

“For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven” (Eccl 3:1).

The Bible’s most famous poem has inspired writers for generations, yet has not been improved upon. In a few short, simple lines, the Preacher ponders the whole of life: birth, death, weeping, laughing, mourning, dancing, breaking down, and building up. The buoyancy and familiarity of the text could cause us to gloss over the poetic brilliance of “the matter[s] under heaven.” But when we get to “a time to hate” and “a time to kill,” the romance is—well, killed. Are all these emotions and events really ordained by God? The strength of the poem is in contrast and repetition. By laying the seasons side by side, the Preacher effectively captures the span and cycle of human life. He isn’t providing a list of experiences that we should check off our holistic life to-do list. Rather, he is emphasizing an absolute need for reliance on God.

Although evil seems to wield power in our lives and in the lives of those around us, God is present. He is there when we experience delights, and He is present when tragedy and sin overwhelm us. When we experience the death of those we love, send a soldier off to war, or experience hate, we can know that God is still making Himself known to fallen people in a fallen world.

We must pray for the Spirit to help us judge the seasons and respond appropriately to Him—with wisdom, like the Preacher advocates. We can live confidently, because “He has put eternity into man’s heart” (Eccl 3:11). Nothing assures us more of this than His provision of a way out of life’s seasons through His Son.

What season of life are you currently in? How are you helping friends in difficult seasons? How are you celebrating with friends in joyful seasons? How can you bring the good news of Christ to bear in both situations?

This article was originally posted in Connect the Testaments: A One-Year Daily Devotional with Bible Reading Plan.

Shelf Life Book Review: Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes

Matthew James Hamilton

Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes
Intervaristy Press, 2012

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In this book, E. Randolph Richards and Brandon J. O’Brien draw from their experiences in cross-cultural communication to help us identify and eradicate cultural blinders that hinder biblical interpretation.

The book is divided into three sections. In “Above the Surface,” the authors describe cultural differences like ethnicity and language. “Just Below the Surface” delves into more subtle distinctions: It examines differences between our individualistic culture and the collective culture of the biblical world, the system of honor or shame versus our own culture of right or wrong, and time and how it plays into our reading of Scripture. In the final section, “Deep Below the Surface,” the authors address ideas that we consider biblical, universal truths, showing that many of these issues are neither universal nor biblical; instead, they can stand in the way of proper interpretation. This book is an excellent tool—eye-opening for any Western Christian, especially those who plan to teach the Bible in non-Western contexts.

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 5 No. 2

You Owe Me Your Very Soul

Perry L. Stepp & Rebecca Van Noord

“And I won’t mention that you owe me your very soul,” Paul says in his letter to Philemon (Phlm 19).

At first glance, Paul’s comment seems like a threat—a rhetorical hand grenade he tosses to pressure Philemon, a church leader in Colossae, to do what he wants. But is that what’s going on?

The Backstory

Philemon is a wealthy Christian who was converted during Paul’s mission work in Colossae. His slave Onesimus runs away, causing Philemon financial loss. During his travels, Onesimus finds Paul and becomes a Christian through his witness. Now, Paul is sending him back to Philemon, along with the letter bearing his master’s name.


Beyond that, the details are hazy. We don’t know exactly what Onesimus did or even what Paul specifically wants Philemon to do for Onesimus. But we do know that he wants Philemon to relate to Onesimus in a completely different manner.

Bondservant or Brother?

It’s not Onesimus’ theft, flight or conversion that Paul initially addresses—it’s Philemon’s faith and reputation. Paul begins by praising Philemon for his “faith in the Lord Jesus” and “love for all of God’s people” (Phlm 5). From there, he segues to the premise for his upcoming request: “And I am praying that you will put into action the generosity that comes from your faith as you understand and experience all the good things we have in Christ” (Phlm 6).

Paul sets up Philemon to respond obediently. Although he could have commanded Philemon to receive Onesimus, he wants and expects Philemon to respond out of love because of the love that was shown him: “He is no longer like a slave to you. He is more than a slave, for he is a beloved brother, especially to me. Now he will mean much more to you, both as a man and as a brother in the Lord” (Phlm 16).

Paul removes barriers that might have existed between the two men—class, rank and working relationship. They are both indebted to Christ and both heirs of His promise of salvation and thus brothers. They’ve been adopted (Rom 8:15–16).

They are also brothers in another sense because Paul is their spiritual father. This is Paul’s reason for telling Philemon that he owes him his “very soul” (Phlm 19). This statement comes after Paul’s offer to pay Onesimus’ debt. Paul shows Philemon that, just like Onesimus, Philemon owes Paul a debt—one that precedes and outweighs Onesimus’.

A Community Response

Paul’s requests don’t affect only Philemon and Onesimus. If we read the first verse of the letter, we see that Paul addresses the entire community that met at Philemon’s house. The letter would have been read aloud while the community was present, and the entire church would have overheard Paul make these requests of Philemon, placing pressure on him to follow through. Paul isn’t letting Philemon make his own private decision. He is holding him accountable before the entire community in Colossae. He is essentially saying, “What does Jesus really mean to you? How transformed by the gospel are you?”

Paul knew that Philemon’s response to this matter would affect the entire community. He wants to remind all of them that they are knit together not by their social or legal standing, but by their faith in Christ.

Pick up resources for studying the pastoral letters at Logos.com/PastoralLetters

Biblical references are from the New Living Translation (NLT).

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 4 No. 6

Wisdom from a Cactus

Aubry Smith

When my husband and I were newly married, we were given a cactus, which we named Maurice. I had never owned a plant, but the cactus-giver assured me that it would be easy. I carefully avoided novice mistakes, like forgetting to water it, not giving it enough sunlight or allowing the neighborhood strays to claim it as their territory.


I still killed Maurice. When I lamented that I was somehow less nurturing than a desert, my husband gently voiced a problem I had overlooked. While I had avoided doing the wrong things, I had failed to do some of the right things—researching how much water the cactus needed, bringing it inside during heavy rains, fertilizing the soil and repotting it periodically.

As Christians, we often measure spiritual growth by how successful we are at avoiding sin. Our testimonies proclaim how life with Christ has helped us eliminate sin—from drug use and immorality to cursing and anger issues. Our tales often end there. However, my failure with Maurice serves as an example that it takes more than avoiding sin to grow and thrive in faith.

In his letter to Titus, Paul writes:

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation for all people, training us to renounce ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age, waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, who gave himself for us to redeem us from all lawlessness and to purify for himself a people for his own possession who are zealous for good works (Titus 2:11–14).

Twice in this passage we find negative and positive actions paired: God’s grace trains us in both renouncing ungodliness and worldly passions (negative) and in living self-controlled, upright and godly lives (positive); Jesus redeems us from lawlessness (negative) and into purity and good works (positive). Jesus saves us from sin, into godliness.

Often, we diligently avoid outward sins—and rightfully so. Sin leads to death and estranges us from God. But how often do we actively seek godly lives and good works? While we avoid sin with our mouths through gossip, lying or unkind words, we are slow to speak encouragement or to voice gratitude.

Such failures are subtle. As “good Christians,” we understand and abide by clear rules like “don’t steal” or “don’t commit adultery.” But commands for goodness, generosity and service seem subjective. Satisfied that we have shunned the evil deeds, we might even give ourselves more leeway when it comes to doing good works—quietly setting them aside as we fill ourselves with the pride of being saint-like.

In Titus 2:1, Paul commands Titus to “teach what accords with sound doctrine,” listing examples like self-controlled speech and temperance to or reverence and kindness. Before instructing Titus on positive or negative actions, he gives the purpose of the good works: “so that in everything they may adorn the doctrine of God our Savior” (2:10). Our godliness gives credence and attractiveness to doctrine. Conversely, a life of sin skews doctrine and maligns God’s nature.

Paul’s words offer hope. God’s grace trains—a word that brings marathon runners and body builders to mind (Titus 2:12). While training is slow, hard work that requires practice and perseverance, it makes a weak body strong. And just as an athlete would not prepare for an event without a trainer, we are not expected to live upright lives on our own. Paul declares that Jesus Christ is the one who purifies us for these good works. The grace that gave us new life also trains and sustains us through the hard work of godliness.

Biblical references are from the English Standard Version (ESV).

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 4 No. 6

I Did It My Way

John D. Barry

Genesis 10–11; Matthew 9; Ecclesiastes 2:18–26

Frank Sinatra was wrong to do things “his way.” In Gen 11, we see people uniting in building what seems like a great triumph of humanity—until we realize what their work is all about. They’re tired of being distant from God, so they build a structure that will reach the heavens.

“Surely the gods will know and find us now.… Let’s meet our maker,” you can almost hear them say. But the true God, Yahweh, knows their plan and says: “Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another’s speech” (Gen 11:7). Because all the people spoke one language, they were dangerous to themselves. In the unity of one world, there is disunity: we choose to assault the God we should serve.

There is an alternative—a unity that God desires: where we serve Him by serving others. Jesus describes how we should act towards one another and towards Him, even teaching us how to pray. With Christ, God has resolved the reason the tower was attempted. Since the Holy Spirit came and brought us comfort (John 16:4–15), the very presence of God is always with us.

Sinatra also said that if a man doesn’t have himself, “then he has naught.” But God wants us to stop focusing on ourselves, building towers, and trying to do things our own way. He wants us to seek Him, and to treat others with the love, respect, and self-sacrifice that Christ gave us. He wants us to do things His way.

What towers are you building? What type of investments should you be making instead?

This article was originally posted in Connect the Testaments: A One-Year Daily Devotional with Bible Reading Plan.

John D. Barry is the CEO and founder of Jesus’ Economy, a nonprofit dedicated to creating jobs and churches in the developing world. To empower the extreme poor, Jesus’ Economy also has an online fair trade shop. John is also the general editor of Faithlife Study Bible and the former editor-in-chief of Bible Study Magazine. Learn more about John’s work with Jesus’ Economy at www.jesuseconomy.org.

Shelf Life Book Review: The Later New Testament Writings and Scripture

Matthew James Hamilton

The Later New Testament Writings and Scripture
Baker Academic, 2012


Steve Moyise follows up his Jesus and Scripture and Paul and Scripture: Studying the New Testament Use of the Old Testament with this third volume, which focuses on Old Testament quotations and allusions in the later New Testament books of Acts, 1 Peter, Jude, 2 Peter, James, Hebrews and Revelation. Moyise highlights quotations or allusions in each book to demonstrate that Acts, James and 1 Peter use Scripture in a traditional way, while Hebrews and Revelation employ it more innovatively. For each quotation, Moyise explains its use in the passage of origin, as well as elsewhere in the New Testament and in early Christian tradition. He also offers extensive discussion of the quotations and allusions to Jewish literature from the Second Temple period (516 BC–AD 70).

With helpful endnotes, a bibliography, an author and subject index, and Scripture references—all found in separate appendices—this book helps us understand how New Testament writers viewed and understood Old Testament passages.

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 5 No. 1

The Angels are Watching

Rick Brannan

In his letter to Timothy, Paul tells him that elders who rule well should receive a “double honor”; in the same breath, he warns Timothy that no elder should be accused of wrongdoing unless there is evidence from two or three witnesses (1 Tim 5:17–19). He follows his instruction with a surprising saying: “In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of the elect angels I charge you to keep these rules without prejudging, doing nothing from partiality” (1 Tim 5:21). Why is Paul so concerned with rewarding or admonishing elders? And why does he need to invoke God, Christ Jesus and the elect angels?



Paul uses these commands, or charges, throughout his letters (1 Tim 6:11–16; Rom 12:1–2; 1 Cor 1:10; Eph 4:17). His charges typically begin with a strong appeal, such as “I charge,” “I exhort” or “I urge,” followed by the name of the person charged (in this case, Timothy). Before concluding his charge with a call to action, Paul inserts a phrase that identifies the authority of the charge—a way to underscore its solemnity or importance. 1

Because false teachers were teaching strange doctrines in the Ephesian church, Paul wants to honor and recognize those who properly handle their responsibilities—who teach sound doctrine and display good leadership. He appeals to the Old Testament to make his point: “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain” (1 Tim 5:18; compare Deut 25:4). Animals who were threshing grain were often allowed to stop and eat the crop. In the same way, elders who lead well need to be properly compensated for their work. Paul also wants to rebuke bad leaders. Accusations brought against elders who are not fulfilling their obligations have to be properly attested by two or three witnesses (1 Tim 5:20; compare Matt 18:15–19).

Why the Elect Angels?

We can understand the importance of this command for Timothy, but why does Paul invoke “the elect angels”? Typically, his charges don’t include this addition.

Appealing to angels as witnesses would not be an unfamiliar move for Paul’s audience. We find similar language in the Testament of Levi, a pseudepigraphal writing from the intertestamental period (ca. 600–160 BC). In this text, Levi, a patriarch, presents his descendants with a choice using language very similar to Paul’s: “Choose for yourselves light or darkness, the Law of the Lord or the works of Beliar (the Devil).” When Levi’s children choose the Law of the Lord, he responds: “The Lord is my witness, and his angels are witnesses, and you are witnesses, and I am witness concerning the word from your mouth” (Testament of Levi 19:1–4). 2

Levi underscores the seriousness of their choice by reminding them that their testimony is heard by the Lord and His angels. The implication: They cannot hide from their decision or feign ignorance. They will also be held accountable.

The same response is expected from Timothy. This is not simply Paul’s command. Timothy has the heavenly host as witness to his actions, but he also has their authority to accomplish this task (compare Heb 2:9).

Why It All Matters

Paul’s goal is a healthy Ephesian church. Although Paul entrusts Timothy with a serious and difficult task, Timothy can be confident that he has the ability and the authority to do it. He has all of heaven as witness and authority.

In the same way, we’re enabled to do the difficult work that God has called us to do for the expansion of His kingdom—even when it seems difficult to do so. When we take up that task faithfully, we can better proclaim Christ and His kingdom.

Biblical references are from the English Standard Version (ESV).

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 4 No. 6

1. Craig A. Smith, Timothy’s Task, Paul’s Prospect: A New Reading of 2 Timothy (Sheffield: The Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2006), 27–30.
2. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 795.

Know, Grow & Repeat: Letting the Word Speak

Joe Bunting

“We don’t read the Bible just to know it, but to be changed by it. It’s the mirror of God’s Word that transforms our lives,” says Dr. David Jeremiah. “But if we want to know the Word of God, if we want to grow in it, we have to make the input.”

Jeremiah’s life and library tell the story of that effort. The commentaries that line his office wall and fill his house are all resources for understanding one book: “The Bible is such a precious book, and you realize that as you go forward. It’s a guidebook for daily life.”

Born to a Baptist preacher, Jeremiah was given his first Bible when he was 12 years old: “I remember how proud I was when I held my first leather covered Scofield Bible. Even as a kid, when I’d come to something in the Bible that was curious to me, I’d look to see if there was a note.”


Feeling called to ministry, Jeremiah pursued an MA in theological studies at Dallas Theological Seminary. After graduating, he founded Blackhawk Baptist Church in Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1969. The church grew from seven families to 1,300 members during the 12 years he taught there. Today, Jeremiah is pastor of Shadow Mountain Community Church in El Cajon, California, which he took over from Tim LaHaye in 1981. He is also the author of numerous books, including the best-selling Captured by Grace.

“After doing this for four decades, one of the blessings is that I’ve preached about 70 percent of the Bible. When I’m studying a passage now—for instance, I’m going through the book of Hebrews—the text brings back to my memory things I’ve studied before.… I’m reaping some of the blessings from Him.”

Success through Scripture

In 1982, Jeremiah founded Turning Point Radio and Television Ministries, which broadcasts to more than 2,000 radio stations, including American Family Radio (AFR)., a monthly magazine based on the radio and television teachings, reaches more than 175,000 families.

Jeremiah doesn’t credit his success to his own talents or techniques. “People ask me, ‘Here you’ve been in this church for 30 years; how does it continue to grow?’ I don’t have anything to tell them except I just teach the Word every Sunday. There’s an incredible hunger, more so today, perhaps, than when I started being a pastor 40 years ago. The Bible meets people’s needs.”

“I teach the Word of God, and the result is a steady, growing awareness that it changes lives. When you do that as long as I have, you get a confidence in the Word that keeps you from thinking you would ever want to try anything else. Cultures come and go, methods come and go, people come and go, but the Word of God doesn’t ever change. It just keeps bearing fruit. It will do that in the congregation. It will do that on radio, television and through the Internet. As long as the Bible is the core of it, you can count on it. Stuff’s going to happen.”

Bringing the Bible to Unbelievers

While Jeremiah grew up with a heritage of Scripture reading, he knows the importance of sharing the Bible with those from different backgrounds.

“I try to get them into the Scripture,” he says. “Just as Christ is self-authenticating, the Scripture is a self-authenticating book. Even though people may start from 10 yards behind zero when they begin to read the Bible, God’s Word is going to make that change possible. If a person wants to know and grow, the Holy Spirit within will encourage them.”

Jeremiah has personally witnessed this transformation throughout his ministry, most recently with a man who started attending his church. “He came to see me one day because [he and his wife] were interested in joining our church, and he said we might have to have a discussion because he was Islamic and his wife was Lutheran. He’d read some passages in the Bible about the Trinity, and he didn’t understand that—it was a real issue for him. He wanted to know the truth.… He asked me this question, ‘Why should I become a Christian?’ ”

Jeremiah began to answer some of his questions and explained as much as he could about Jesus and Christianity, but the man wasn’t convinced. “We got to the end of a pretty long discussion, and I just said to him, ‘We can sit here and argue about all these things and discuss them for hours. But if you really want to know the truth, you can become a Christian right now. You’ll discover that along the way, your eyes will be opened to the truth. You’ll begin to see not only the reality of Christ, but a lot of the questions you had before will be answered.’ He actually asked me, ‘How would I go about doing that?’ … So we prayed together that day. He and his whole family have become more open to the truth of the gospel.”

The Word in the World

In the 30 years since Jeremiah founded Turning Point, he has been amazed at the response. “We get letters every week from people who have heard the Word of God being taught on the radio. Their letters say how their lives have been changed and transformed. Many letters are from prisoners who are incarcerated and have no outside window except the radio. They hear us and they begin to listen, and little by little we’ve had many of them come to Christ in prison.”

The Bible, says Jeremiah, is the best means that Christians have to change their world. “I am so confident in the Word of God. I know, in my heart, that it is sharper than a two-edged sword and that it can do what it says it will do. But you’ve got to set it loose. You’ve got to teach it and let people hear it. When you do that, the result is exactly the way the Bible says it will be: God’s Word will not return unto Him void. It will accomplish the thing that it was sent to do.”

Personal Study Habits

Jeremiah admits that being a pastor and a Bible teacher is one of the best accountability methods for staying in the Word. “It is a great discipline. I believe that one of the best things God ever did for me was put me in a place where every Sunday, I have to preach a new message. It forces you to study in a way you would not study. It forces you to stay focused and never, ever have a week where the Word of God has no part in your life.”

His routine always begins with a simple reading of the text. “I try to get an overall view of what it’s saying and where it’s going. Then I begin to dig into it. I’m an outliner, so I like to see how the pieces of the text fit together—how the structure of the text affects what’s being said. I do this until I feel like I’ve got a handle on where the text is going. After that, I read commentaries and sermons that have bearing on the text—not only to find supportive material to teach the text, but to make sure I have understood it clearly. There are so many tools and so many ways for you to pump God’s Word into your heart, visually and verbally.”

Building a Routine

Jeremiah says that in order to successfully study the Bible, we first need to be filled with the Spirit. “The Bible says that when you accept Christ, He gives you the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit guides you into all truth.” And we also need to consistently make the time for Bible study—an obstacle for many Christians. “The old adage is we have just about as much of the Bible in our lives as we want. But you can’t have the product without the process.”

“I find that when I spend time in the Bible during the day or even in the nighttime before I go to bed, everything about my life is affected by it. Many times after I’ve studied a passage, I’ll run into a situation where that passage speaks to something that’s going on.”

For Jeremiah, simply reading the Bible brings a sense of peace to life. “It’s kind of like what Psalm 119 says: ‘Great peace have they that love Thy law.’ You have a sense of peace because you’ve spent time in the Word of God. You know that your life is being informed by its truth. He wants to direct our paths—by His Word.”

Listen to David Jeremiah’s radio program, Turning Point, at AFR.Net.

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 4 No. 6

Finding Comfort in a Cynic’s Words

John D. Barry

Genesis 5; Matthew 5; Ecclesiastes 1:12–18

“I have seen everything that is done under the sun, and behold, all is vanity and a striving after the wind” (Eccl 1:14). These aren’t exactly the words you want to hear in the morning—look who woke up on the wrong side of the bed. The intention behind them, though, is actually quite comforting.

The Preacher in Ecclesiastes goes on to prove that he doesn’t need counseling, but instead should be our counselor: “What is crooked cannot be made straight, and what is lacking cannot be counted … I have acquired great wisdom … [But] in much wisdom is much vexation, and he who increases knowledge increases sorrow” (Eccl 1:15–16, 18). And although we may want to deny this fact, it’s a truism that haunts all great people: we may help the hurting people in our world, but we will never be able to end the pain and knowledge alone will simply not get us there. Words on paper are not the solution. A manifesto, like the Declaration of Independence, may prompt great change, but what is it without action? It is vanity. It’s a striving after the wind.

Delusion of importance has crushed many great people’s efforts. In fact, I would go so far as to say that it’s what keeps most people from becoming what God wants them to be. And it’s not just the delusion of grandeur; it’s the delusion of insignificance or the distraction of focus. You become what you do, and what you think, write, speak, or feel, is meaningless if it’s not what you do.

We as Christians are meant to act. As Jesus says, “You are the salt of the earth. But if salt becomes tasteless, by what will it be made salty? It is good for nothing any longer except to be thrown outside and trampled under foot by people” (Matt 5:13). If we are salt, let’s be salty. If we are light, let’s shine brightly (Matt 5:14). Anything other than that is vain. It’s searching for knowledge for knowledge’s sake. It leaves both us and the world empty.

There is comfort to be found in the Preacher of Ecclesiastes’ words in that he is telling us, albeit through harshness and well-put cynicism, that we’re meant for more than we usually recognize. He calls us to rise to that: to shun the unimportant and focus on God’s work. What good is wisdom and knowledge if it’s not for that purpose?

What are you currently delusional about? What’s vain that you’re doing that God wishes for you to change?

This article was originally posted in Connect the Testaments: A One-Year Daily Devotional with Bible Reading Plan.

John D. Barry is the CEO and founder of Jesus’ Economy, a nonprofit dedicated to creating jobs and churches in the developing world. To empower the extreme poor, Jesus’ Economy also has an online fair trade shop. John is also the general editor of Faithlife Study Bible and the former editor-in-chief of Bible Study Magazine. Learn more about John’s work with Jesus’ Economy at www.jesuseconomy.org.

Shelf Life Book Review: The NIV Application Commentary

Matthew James Hamilton

The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy
Zondervan, 2012

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Daniel I. Block’s goal in this commentary is to bring the ancient message of Deuteronomy into the context of 21st-century Christianity. Block arranges his sections according to sequential blocks of biblical text, each about 15 to 30 verses long. Each block is separated into three categories: “Original Meaning,” which discusses the historical, literary and cultural context of the passage; “Bridging Contexts,” which helps us “discern what is timeless in the timely pages of the Bible and what is not” (11); and “Contemporary Significance,” which applies the text directly to a 21st-century Christian’s life.

This commentary will be helpful to anyone seeking to learn more about the text of Deuteronomy without academic training. It will be especially enlightening if used in combination with a critical commentary.

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Faithlife Corporation. Originally published in print, Vol. 4 No. 6