Finding the Trinity in the OT

Author Ryan Rotz

When studying the Trinity, it makes sense to start with the New Testament and the words of Jesus in passages like Matthew 28:19 and John 15:26. But what about the Old Testament? Was the idea of a Trinity or Godhead ever mentioned? Was it heretical, as it is in Judaism today?

These questions get more interesting when you consider Judaism’s monotheistic beliefs. “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Deut. 6:4; JPS Tanakh) is the first line of the Shema, a prayer recited by Jews every day. This brings up another question. How could Jews in the early church believe Jesus was God if they grew up with monotheism—being taught there was only one God in heaven?

In this video segment, Hebrew Bible and Semitic language scholar Dr. Michael Heiser explains that before Jesus came, Jews did believe in the idea of a Godhead.

Dr. Heiser continues this lesson in the rest of his Mobile Ed course OT291 The Jewish Trinity: How the Old Testament Reveals the Christian Godhead. It’s the ideal course for those teaching or studying the doctrine of the Trinity and provides excellent content for conversations with Jewish friends.

Watch additional clips and learn more at Logos.com.

Why the Dove?

Author John D. Barry

Ambrose of Milan on Jesus’ Baptism

Ambrose (ca. 333–397 AD) was the bishop of Milan, as well as St. Augustine’s teacher. He is most well known for his defense of the Holy Spirit as a divine part of the Trinity.

WhytheDove

“ ‘[H]eaven was opened, the Holy Spirit descended in bodily shape like a dove’ [Luke 3:21–22]. Why like a dove? For the grace of the washing requires simplicity, so that we may be ‘innocent like doves’ [Matt 10:16]. The grace of the washing requires peace, as in an earlier image the dove brought to the ark that which alone was inviolable by the flood [Gen 8:10–11]. … In that branch, in that ark, was the image of peace and of the church. In the midst of the floods of the world the Holy Spirit brings its fruitful peace to its church. David too taught [about] the sacrament of baptism … with the Spirit of prophecy, [saying,] ‘Who will give me wings like a dove?’ …

Because the Father did not wear a body, … the Father wished to prove to us that he is present in the Son, saying, ‘You are my beloved Son. In you I am well pleased’ [Luke 3:22]. If you wish to learn that the Son is always present with the Father, read the voice of the Son saying, ‘If I go up into heaven, you are there. If I go down into the grave, you are present there’ [Psa 139:8].”[1]

[1] St. Ambrose of Milan, Exposition of the Holy Gospel According to Saint Luke with Fragments on the Prophecy of Isaias. Translation by T. Tomkinson (Etna: Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, 1998), pgs. 76–77. Translation amended by A. A. Just, Luke. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament  Vol 3. (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2005), pgs. 66–67.

Bible Study Magazine delivers tools and methods for Bible study, as well as insights from respected Bible teachers, professors, historians, and archaeologists. Take over 30% off the cover price—subscribe now!

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Logos Bible Software. Originally published in print, Vol. 1 No. 3.