A Messiah, A Giant & God’s Favor

Bible Handbooks on David's LifeAuthor James D. Elgin

Bible handbooks are like a roadmap to reading the Bible. Passage summaries, detailed maps, and character sketches provide context for each biblical account. Using Bible handbooks we find that David was called mashiach (“anointed”; “messiah”) and found favor with God before his victory over Goliath.

The Bible Guide

Andrew Knowles, The Bible Guide (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 2001) pg. 138.

A Messiah, A Giant & God’s Favor

In the Valley of Elah, Goliath taunted David’s small stature and feeble weaponry. David’s bravery was unimpeded by Goliath’s words and fierce appearance. He knew Goliath’s defeat would prove to the nations “that there is a God in Israel” (1 Sam 17:46 ESV). David’s pronouncement seems trite to us, but for David and the young nation of Israel, Goliath’s defeat demonstrated the power of the God of Israel over every nation and its god. When David announced these words, he proclaimed the favor and presence of Yahweh, the supreme God of Israel.

Halley’s Bible Handbook

Henry H. Halley, Halley’s Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007), pg. 209.

Samuel anointed David in secret so that Saul would not know about the young shepherd-king from Bethlehem. God was committed to training David to be Israel’s king. David’s fame as a musician earned him the position of armor-bearer to King Saul. David’s close association with the king’s counselors and his friendship with Saul’s son, Jonathan, prepared him to be King of Israel; but his tangle with the Philistine giant would earn him the people’s favor and support.

This 2007 revision of Halley’s adds a substantial number of archaeological notes (e.g., The Tel Dan Inscription is mentioned in reference to 2 Sam 7 on pg. 125).

Willmington’s Bible Handbook

H. L. Willmington’s Bible Handbook (Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1997), pg. 154. In 1 Sam 16:13, the prophet Samuel publicly anointed Israel’s newest messiah, David. Willmington explores the usage of the Hebrew word for “anointed one” or “christ” (mashiach, משׁיח; English, “messiah”). The word is used to describe Old Testament figures chosen to do God’s work (e.g., Saul in 1 Sam 24:10; David in 2 Sam 19:21; and even the Persian King Cyrus in Isa 45:1). God overlooked seven of Jesse’s sons and selected David to be Saul’s successor. God was not concerned with David’s physical stature, but with his spiritual stability.

Zondervan Handbook to the Bible

David Barton, Zondervan Handbook to the Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), pgs. 269–71.

A Messiah, A Giant & God's Favor

David Barton’s character sketch illustrates our connection to David. From his battle with Goliath, to his flight from Saul, to the deterioration of his family, David is portrayed as the underdog. Whether he is mourning the loss of Saul and Jonathan or weeping over adulterous sin, we find humanity at the helm of a nation. Each event in David’s life points to his dependence on God and God’s sovereignty over the young nation of Israel.

The story of David is not a fairy tale or a bedtime story. David’s life reminds us of God’s faithfulness to His cause and His people. Through David’s struggles and victories, we learn how to mourn in the presence of our Heavenly Father and praise Him for His providence.

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Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Logos Bible Software. Originally published in print, Vol. 1 No. 4.

Sanctified Dirt

SanctifiedDirt

Author Michael S. Heiser

Elisha’s healing of Naaman the leper, commander of the army of the king of Syria, is a familiar story to many (2 Kgs 5:1–27). Naaman hears that Elisha, the prophet of Israel, can heal him, so he makes the trip. When the two meet, Elisha tells him rather dismissively that he needs to take a bath in the Jordan River. Naaman doesn’t take this well and prepares to go home. At the behest of some servants, he consents to dip himself in the Jordan. He is miraculously healed by the simple act. The display of power, so transparently without sacrifice or incantation, awakens Naaman to the fact that Yahweh of Israel is the true God. Here’s where the story usually ends in our telling, but that would result in the omission of one very odd detail—what Naaman asks to take back home.

In 2 Kgs 5:15–19 the elated Naaman returns to Elisha and begs him to take payment for healing him. Elisha repeatedly refuses. Finally, before embarking for Syria, Naaman makes a strange request: to load two mules with dirt to take back with him.

Dirt? I can think of a few favors I would ask of a prophet in a receptive mood, but dirt certainly isn’t one of them. The request is so odd that it’s hard to avoid wondering if Naaman needed some other kind of therapy. Why would he ask for dirt?

But Naaman was completely in his right mind. In 2 Kgs 5:17, Naaman follows the request with an explanation: “for from now on your servant will not offer burnt offering or sacrifice to any god but the Lord” (ESV). The dirt and Naaman’s new allegiance to the God of Israel are related. Naaman was a man with significant duties in his home country. He couldn’t stay in Israel, but he could take Israel with him. Why would he want to?

Naaman’s unusual request stems from the ancient—and biblical—conception that the earth is the locale for a cosmic turf war. Naaman wanted dirt from Israel because Israel was Yahweh’s territory. The dirt which is Yahweh’s domain is holy ground.

The idea of “holy ground” is an important element of Israelite theology. This phrase is used when Moses is in the presence of the Angel of the Lord and the God of Israel at the burning bush (Exod 3:1–5), and when Joshua meets the Angel of the Lord (Josh 5:15).[1] More broadly, the idea derives from Deut 32:8–9 (compare, Deut 4:19–20) where we learn that when God divided up the nations at the Tower of Babel, they were allotted to “the sons of God.”[2] The nations of the world were, in effect, disinherited by Yahweh as His own earthly family. Immediately after Babel, Yahweh called Abraham and the nation of Israel was created. Israel was therefore “Yahweh’s portion” (Deut 32:9), whereas all the other nations belong to the sons of God whom Israel was forbidden to worship. As a result, Israel was holy ground; the territory of every other nation was not. The rest of the Old Testament is the story of God’s intention to reclaim every nation on earth.

Elisha understood Naaman’s request and granted it without hesitation. He knew the request came from a sincere theological change of heart. Naaman believed that “There [was] no God in all the earth but in Israel” (5:15) and wanted to return to his homeland with holy ground. Even though he would still have to help his aged king bow before Rimmon, Naaman wanted Elisha to know his heart belonged only to the God of Elisha.

Notes:

[1] The “captain of the Lord’s army” in Josh 5:13–15 can be identified with the Angel of the LORD on the basis of two observations: (1) The parallel with Exod 3:1–5; and (2) The description of the Captain standing before Joshua “with his sword drawn in his hand.” The Hebrew phrase behind this description is found in only two other places in the Old Testament: Num 22:23 and 1 Chr 21:16, both of which explicitly apply the phrase to the Angel of the LORD.

[2] This translation is based upon a correction of the Hebrew text in Deut 32:8 with material from the Dead Sea Scrolls. Most English bibles read “sons of Israel” in Deut 32:8, a reading that makes no sense, since Israel did not exist at the time of the tower of Babel, nor is Israel listed in the Table of Nations that resulted from the judgment at Babel. The ESV correctly incorporates the Dead Sea Scroll reading into Deut 32:8. For more information, see MichaelSHeiser.com/DT32.pdf

Bible Study Magazine delivers tools and methods for Bible study, as well as insights from respected Bible teachers, professors, historians, and archaeologists. Take over 30% off the cover price—subscribe now!

Article courtesy of Bible Study Magazine published by Logos Bible Software. Originally published in print, Vol. 1 No. 3.